|The Buddha means ‘Illuminated One’ (literally). This Inspiration is Transcendental Knowledge in the highest sense. This Condition of Knowledge in which true «I» am learnt as it is. This Consciousness which is isolated from all passing and final, or simply phenomenal. A Condition of the Buddha — the Higher Condition of Sanctity.
Siddhartha Gautama is a Indian royal prince. On one of versions, was born in day of a May full moon in 623 year BC in Kapilavasthu, on border of Nepal and India — a city where great eremite Kapila had lived.
His father, king Suddhodana from aristocrats Shakya (from here one of names of the Buddha — Shakyamuni). King Shakya conducted the genealogy from king Ikshvakuly, the son of legislator Manu, and among the ancestors there was even one sacred wise man Gotama. From it they have accepted family sobriquet Gautama (occurring from Gotama).
Mother is the favourite wife of the king, Maya, has died in seven days after his birth. For the fifth day after his birth he has been named Siddhartha, that means «the executed desire». According to ancient custom a lot of notable brahman have been invited to ceremony. Examining the child, seven of them have found out the characteristic marks consisting of 32 main signs and 80 secondary, and one of brahman, eremite Asita, has told, that Siddhartha becomes either the great monarch, or enlightened. According to this prophecy, Siddhartha could become the eremite that has caused displeasure in his father because on it their family could interrupt.
As royal child Siddhartha should get corresponding education, but no data on it are available.
In 16 years the Buddha married the cousin, the daughterof prince Suppabuddha, Yasodhara. After that events he has spent thirteen years a magnificent life, not knowing, that occurs behind palace walls. By order of king he was in every possible way preserved from life realities that prophecy Asita has not come true.
Once when it passed from a palace to park of pleasures, his sight has fallen to the old person, sick, a corpse and the eremite. On what he had reflected many times, at last has been seen by him actually. First three sights have convincingly proved him the relentless nature of a life. The fourth sight has prompted a way to overcome illness of a life and to reach calmness and peace. Then he has decided to leave in search of the truth and an everlasting peace. There are some more interpretation of the reasons of that Siddhartha have left high life — a difficult political situation in the country of Shakya, the insult from governors Cosala, approaching conquest of the country from amplifying kingdoms Cosala and Magadhi.
In 29 years Siddhartha has left in asceticism. Originally he studied at Alara Kalama which has learnt high degree of concentration of consciousness. However Gautama has not been satisfied, cause his knowledge has not led to the cease of sufferings and a nirvana. At this time it was easy to find the competent teacher in India, and Gautama has passed to master Uddaha Ramaputta. This master has learnt him the maximum degree of mental concentration. However it has not been completely satisfied. Therefore he has left the contemplator and begins to contemplate independently.
In 35 years as a result of practice of contemplation the Buddha has reached enlightenments and has comprehended four noble trues.
Having cognized the reason of sufferings and a way of deliverance from them, the Buddha long reflected, should he transfer the knowledge reached by him to mankind. Movable by compassion to the world, has decided to proclaim the opening to people. On a legend, the god of death — the demon of harm Mara — tried to interfere with it. The Buddha has won Мару, has come in Varenacy and there has said the first sermon in which has short stated main principles of new religion.
For first time the Buddha was disappointed. Instead of expected success he has met only sneers and contempt. Many expressed doubt in his mental capacities and considered, that he has gone mad. Siddhartha was completely lost in mass of philosophers of various schools and directions wandering about the country. The last, seeing dangerous contender in the Buddha , also pursued it.
On some legends, Buddha make followers of the doctrine five ascetics, the old friends, while he was in Varenacy. Besides, he has started to search for means for acquisition greater number of followers as it is possible. With that objective he has convinced eremite Kasjapa of his views, at once becoming at the head of its five hundred followers.
After that the Buddha has started to wander about the valley of Ganges, working wonders and preaching the doctrine. These wanderings were not cloudless as many, remembering his origin, were inclined to see political underlying reason in his actions. Besides, some philosophical schools, in particular, Lokayata were serious opponents of his doctrine. Among followers of the Buddha also were dissatisfied, trying to rise against Siddhartha and even to deprive of his life.
The Buddha has died of food poisoning in vicinities Kusinagara, on hands of true student Anandy. The death has overtaken him at eighty-year-old age, in 543 year BC, and has coincided with a date of birth and enlightenment. From that time day of a May full moon for Buddhists three times sacred day. On a legend, the last words of the Buddha were:
|Bodhidharma — the legendary Indian monk, 28th patriarch of the Buddhism. The founder of the doctrine the chan-Buddhism (a zen-Buddhism, the first Patriarch of the zen-Buddhism).|
|Under the legend, he come from South India, belonged to varna of Brahmans or Kshatriyas, occurred from an imperial family, was the third successor of the king. Having left a family, has trampled down the Buddhism of Mahayana sense and became the monk-missionary.
Has arrived to China (Guangzhou) by sea in the end of the first governing of dynasty of Liu Song (420 — 479, under other versions — in 520 or 527). Between 516 — 526 Loyang where in monastery Junninsy preached doctrine of Buddism. Then has left in monastery Shalinsy on a mountain Sunshan where has spent nine years, «continuously beholding a stone wall in sedentary meditation», therefore contemporaries have nicknamed it «brahman, beholding a wall». Has spent in the north of China more than 40 years, extending the doctrine about «enlightenment» and transferring esoteric methods of buddhistic psychotraining practice.
Used the big respect among a chinease monks as «the instructor of meditation» and the expert in buddhistic canon, had many students and followers, among which are most known Huike, Tanlin, Daoxua etc.
The successor and the second chan patriarch has appointed Huike, having transferred to it for distribution as main canonic text of Chan school «Lankavatara Sutra» text in four «scrolls». Along with interpretation of this and other Mahayana Sutras has developed the doctrine about «two ways and four methods» «enlightenment» achievements.
First «way» — «occurrence in a principle» meant comprehension of that all live beings possess the same initially «pure» nature which has been only superficially «saddened» by ignorance, therefore it is necessary to reject all false sights and to return to «a true reality» by means of practice of «wall contemplation».
Under the second «path» — «occurrence in practice» development by the adherent of «four methods» meant: willingly to accept all sorrows and grieves, not showing hatred to the one who does you harm; to follow the law of causality and to be happy with the destiny, easy perceiving happiness and misfortune, acquisition and loss; to get rid of passions and not aspire to anything; to be in the consent with the Dharma, id est the doctrine of the Buddha.
To his working out is attributed also four basic principles of the chan-Buddhism :
Von Myon Synim — the student of the patriarch Seong-chel Senim. The founder international буддистского the centre «Lotus Lantern» in Seoul and a temple «Dalma Sa».
|Von Myon Sunim (Perfect Light) was born in 1950 in Taegu. Went to school and did not show especial interest to the Buddhism. In 19 years he prepared for entrance examinations in university. As in the nearest Buddhist temple it was very cosy, silent, he was engaged there. Here it has ripened the decision to become the monk, he escapes in well-known monastery in Korea Heins and becomes novice. Parents have found him here only in half a year. Persuaded to come back home, but was already too late.
Soon it has accepted monastic dedication and became a student Seongcheol Sunim (the Patriarch of Korean Buddhist Chogye Order). In Heinsa Von Myon Sunim has spent 12 years. Took part in 3 monthly summer and winter seclusions and retreats «Jump of a tiger» when monks practise meditation within 3 weeks for 20 hours without sleeping. It is possible to tell, that as a whole he spent in a hall for meditation of monastery Heins about three years.
Once, during one of retreat words and phrases of English language (it studied it at school) began to climb in his head. So there was a decision to learn English. After that he goes to Sri Lanka where it receives one more Buddhist name Asanga. Asanga means impartiality, not coherence with anything. This word describes free, not staying in anything, mind.
Having lived some years abroad, Von Myon Sunim has learnt, that except for facts in issue from Buddhist history of Korea, in the world it is not known about the Korean Buddhism. Then there is a desire to organise the International Centre of the Buddhism, first in Korea.
In 1987 Von Myon Sunim with several Europeans has based the international Buddhistic centre «Lotus Lantern». Has been constructed meditaion centre near Seoul. Now under a management Von Myon Sunim is under construction Buddhistic Temple on Taiwan.
To Russia Sunim has arrived for the first time in 1989. During the summer Olympic Games in Seoul Von Myon Sunim worked in Olympic village in the Buddhist centre. He got acquainted with the translator from St.-Petersburg and has received the invitation on a visit. Before to go to Russia, he was necessary to receive the permission of the Master. Usually Seongcheol Sunim rejected all similar offers, saying, that it is not necessary. Von Myon was afraid, that will hear the similar answer. But on its surprise, Seongcheol Sunim has told, that it important and has approved a trip.
Von Myon has held to Russia a few retreats, to much has given the refuge, some students have devoted in monks. Donetsk, Bishkek, Tashkent, Tula — cities where he was the Teacher. In 2000 in Moscow the Buddhist community «Dalmasa» has been organised.
Von Myon Sunim died on September, 23rd, 2003.
Wu Bong Soen Sa Nim — is the Leading Teacher for the big number Zen Centers in Europe and the Senior Master at the European School Zen «Kwan Um».
|Wu Bong Soen Sa Nim (Jacob Perl) was born in 1950 in Poland and still the child has emigrated with parents to the USA. He was 20 when his first acquaintance to the Buddhism has occurred.
Before he has met the Zen Master Seung Sahn and became its first student in America in 1972, Wu Bong Soen Sa Nim practised with Shunryu Suzuki in the Zen Center of San Francisco and year of practice has devoted to employment with Tarthang Tulku in meditation centre of Tibetan school Ningma in Berkeley (California). In 1978 he helps Zen Master Sung to the Dignity with creation Polish Zen Center of School «Kwan Um». In 1984 it receives «inka» and starts to give the Doctrine in the USA and Europe. In 1993 Wu Bong Soen Sa Nim receives Dharma transmission.
Zen Master Wu Bong has the university diploma in mathematics and worked in several firms as the engineer and the manager. He has the fourth dan in the Korean style of fencing Shim Gum Do and trained in this art. Zen Master Wu Bong is married with two children. Wu Bong Soen Sa Nim is the leading teacher in many zens-centres of Europe, USA and the main teacher at the European School Zen «Kwan Um».
Zen Master Wu Bong repeatedly visited St.-Petersburg and spent three-day retreat in Dacan «Gunzechoyney», in the zen-centre on the Levashovsky prospectus, in Pavlovsk. Zen Master Wu Bong is the leading teacher of the zen-centre in St.-Petersburg. In 2008, 2009 and 2010 he has visited Donetsk and has held there three-day retreats. In 2010 he has visited Kyiv and has held there open lecture and miniretreat.